China government pays more and more attention on the implementation of energy conservation and carbon emission reduction in recent years. The target is to decrease 40%~45%of the totalcarbon dioxide emissions by the year 2020compared tothe year 2005. Green building development is the most important way to accomplish the target. By 2012, the existing building area has been increased to 50 billion m2. Most of these buildings are necessary to be carried out green building retrofit due to their high energy consumption, water waster, material waste, and environmentalburdens. Therefore, the existing building market has large potential on the promotion of sustainable building technologies. So it is necessary to study the policies on the promotion of green building retrofit to improve the relevant work implementation.
Based on the background, this project is to study China current building market status and promote a series of policies to enhance existing building green retrofit. From the point of view of current situation and development of existing buildings in China, the project will carry out research on development, technical measures and industry form, analyze the relationship of existing building retrofit and green employment along with the key issues of industry chain, make analysis of specific implementation of investment and financing mechanism in the existing building green retrofit field and put forward mechanism and suggestion to promote existing building green retrofit.
In the aspect of study on the current status of existing building and green retrofit policies, through a series of activities, for example, analyzed the general current situation of existing building, energy resource consumption level; summarize the current situation of laws, regulations and policy on the central level and local level as well as technical standards, which are related to the existing building retrofit; analyzed the technical application situation of seven projects, which acquired the green building assessment identification by means of existing building retrofit. Sort out technical implementation ways and cost benefits applied to existing building retrofit. Results are as follows: put forward the contradiction of construction market development: the growth of energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions is higher than the growth of building volume; with the development of urbanization process, the building volume will increase; confirm the potential scope of green building retrofit: all residential buildings built during 1981~1997 in northern region, the residential buildings which was built during 1998~2005 and not meet civil building energy saving design standard (heating residential building part), the residential buildings which was built during 1981~2001 in the hot summer and cold winter region and not meet civil building energy saving design standard in hot summer and cold winter region, the residential buildings which was built during 1981-2005 and not meet civil building energy saving design standard in hot summer and warm winter region, as well as the public buildings which was built during 1981~2005 and not meet the public building energy efficiency design standard, the gross area are 35.15 billions m2. The direct scope consists of 400 million m2 residential buildings in northern heating region, 50 million m2 residential buildings in the hot summer and cold winter region and 60 million m2 public buildings, totally 510 million m2; Based on the summary of existing cases, come up with the technology category applied to existing building green retrofit and estimate the energy saving rate of existing building green retrofit is between 60%-72%, water saving rate is between 23%~60%, the least incremental cost is only 60 yuan/ m2 and the most incremental cost is 541yuan/ m2. The energy saving retrofit accounts for the most proportion of th incremental cost, Water-saving transformation followed. Finally based on the difficulties or competitions faced in existing building green retrofit, Provided the mechanism and policy suggestions applied on the promotion of existing buildings green retrofit.
In the aspect of Study on the industry chain of existing building green retrofit, through a series of activities, for example, investigated and summarized the produce and development of green industry chain at home and abroad and the development of industries related to existing buildingsgreen retrofit; established the industries chain model of existing buildingsgreen retrofit and summarized the classifications and features of industries chain and established the industries chain model of existing buildingsgreen retrofit.Based on the analysis, applied the industrial chain model of existing buildingsgreen retrofiton an actual project analysis. Results are as follows: sort out the produce and composition of green retrofit in existing buildings: the industry chain of green retrofit in existing buildings consists of five parts: consult and design, production, construction and transformation, operation and maintenance and put into service.Among them, every link has its own inclusion chain.The main body corresponds to its link, such as design institute ,construction company, building materials enterprise and real estate enterprise. They constitute industrial chain through vertical intergration or contract. Put forward industrial chain governance model of green retrofit in existing buildings: on the whole, industry chain of green transformation in existing buildings is comprehensive linkage type ,refined to various sectors within the industry chain, it has vertical integration chain and contract chain.Put forward the regional applicability and different construction category applicability of industry chain of existing buildingsgreen retrofit:in extremely cold region,it is suitable to form industry cluster, regarding enclosure structrue energy saving recnstruction, heating system reform and Thermal measurement transformation as the core; in the cold region, it is suitable to form skill- intensive industrial chain,regarding enclosure structure energy reconstruction ,sloar energy tchnology and water saving technolgy as the core; in the hot summer and cold winter region, it is suitable to form technolgy industrial chain, which takes priority of consult and design and pays attention to technology application; in the hot summer and warm winter region, it is suitable to form product-oriented industrial chain, which mainly consists of dehumidificatin and thermal insulation building material; in mild region, it is suitable to form skill-intensive industrial chain.for residential building, it is suitable to form integrated industrial chain, which takes priority of consult, construction and peratin management, combined with thermal insulation transfrmation, heating system transfrmation and new energy utilization for the technical guide.For the commercial building, it is suitable to form skill-intensive industrial chain, which takes priority of system design and building automatic control. For hospital building, it is suitable to form demand generated industrial chain with power saving, water saving technology as the core. For the school building, it is suitable to form industry cluster, centred on thermal insulation technology and material. For industrial workshop, it is suitable to form production generated industrial chain, centred on building material industry. Come up with qualitative and quantitative analysis method of industrial chain model of existing buildingsgreen retrofit according to the fomula as below:
By this way to judge if the enterprise should join in the industrial chain, then count the transfrmation cost before and after the retrofit, transfrmation cost before retrofit=(consult fee +building material fee +retrofit fee +management fee)×retrofit area; transfrmation cost after retrofit= [consult fee(1-G1)+ building material fee (1- G2)+ retrofit fee(1-G3)+ management fee(1-G4)]×retrofit area。G is added value or saving rate of the operation process of the chain. Finally, count the residual cost of the industry chain: SC=C0-C to obtain the economic benefit of the industry chain. Applied the industrial chain model of existing buildingsgreen retrofiton on an actual project case. It turned out that the transformation cost could save 738000 yuan after the industrial chain was formed and the cost saving rate achieved 16.4%. It is proved that the model has considerable Economic, environmental and social benefits. Finally put forward Industrial chain model of existing buildingsgreen retrofit and suggestions to promote it.
In the aspect of Study on the relationship between existing building green retrofit and green employment, through a series of activities, for example: Investigated and summarized the background and features of green employment and the positive effect of green employment on social development; survey the study method of positive and negative effect of green employment on social development and positions estimating theory and method. Results are as follows: put forward the influence analysis of green transformation in existing buildings on green employment; the analysis of the degree of correlation between green transformation in existing buildings and green employment as well as employment source and employment type which green transformation in existing buildings provides green employment with; combined with the empirical research of pull effect of green transformation in existing buildings on green employment,reach the conclusion that green retrofit itself can create 194754797 direct jobs by the year 2020 and indirect jobs brought by connection management reach 5258390 by means of working hours prediction method. Green retrofit itself can create 215788315 indirect jobs by the year 2020 and indirect jobs brought by connection management reach 1156843 by means of input-output method.
In the aspect of Study on the investment and financial mechanism in the existing building green retrofit field, obtain the scale and funds requirement of existing buildingsgreen retrofit. For long term, there has been 35.15 billion m2 of existing building total area need to be green retrofit and the fund reaches 62 trillion. For recent scale,there has been 510 million m2 of existing building total area need to be green retrofit and the fund reaches 525 billion. Investigated the the investment and financing mechanism research background of existing buildingsgreen retrofit, the the concept system as well as external factors; analyze research situation of investment and financing mode of existing buildingsgreen retrofit at home and abroad and made a survey on the problems existed in Investment and financing constitution of existing buildingsgreen retrofit. Combined with the actual conditions in China, design the financing model applied to existing building green retrofit.At the initial stage of the existing building green retrofit, it is suitable to adopt the model of ‘retrofit fund =government subsidy +property right unit investment ’. At the development stage, it is suitable to adopt the model of ‘‘retrofit fund =government subsidy+ property right unit investment+private enterprises investment +owner investment’. At the mature stage, it is suitable to adopt the model of’ retrofit fund =government support + property right unit investment+private enterprises investment +owner investment’. Finally, come up with the policy suggestions of existing buildingsgreen retrofit.
Based on all the study above, four sub-reports were completed: Report of the current status of existing building and green retrofit policies study, Report of the industry chain of existing building green retrofit study, Report of the relationship between existing building green retrofit and green employment study and Report of the investment and financial mechanism in the existing building green retrofit field study.