China is now in a period of rapid urbanization and industrialization. The issues of population, resources and environment are becoming more and more attention. Increasingly prominent issues in cities force us to rethink current urban construction concepts and development models. In order to explore the way of sustainable development, some cities are developing their green building and eco- district demonstration. With the development of eco-district, problems emerges like ambiguous objective and complicated content, miscellaneous indicator system and being lack of practicality, not well-organized management system, unclear responsibility, lack of effective methods for eco-city’s construction and management.
The program took green low-carbon eco-district as the target, usually refers to the core zones or pioneer zones of low-carbon eco-city such as Zhongrui eco-city in Wuxi Taihu New Town and the new district of the city such as Kunming Chenggong New Town. Based on the spirit of Green Action Plan, with a view to the whole city and relies on green buildings, the program obeys the following regulations: strategic guiding, planning first, indicators implementing and process control. An indicator system including ecological protection, green buildings, green transportation and green municipal infrastructure will be established and it will link up the existing green building and low-carbon eco-city indicator system and be focused on the implementing and practicality of the indicator system. And the indicators is abided in the whole process of the construction such as planning, transfer of land sold, designing, construction, operation and scrapping. The construction and management of low-carbon city also will be standardization and institutionalization. Corresponding administrative regulations will be made to clear the responsibility of various stakeholders. Definite the detailed contents of the low-carbon eco-district construction. Set up the practical guidelines of the low-carbon eco-district indicator system and work out its management regulations. The research will help to specify the contents of China's low-carbon eco-city, to put forward reasonable and effective promoting methods, to improve the levels of urban development and constructions, to change the extensive urban development model, to improve the urban environment, to solve a series of problems hindering urban development, to guide the city to take the path of sustainable development.
In order to ensure project organizing and implementation, firstly, the top design was taken into serious consideration by discussing with the leaders from MOHURD and US-EF for several times to decide research contents and key points. Secondly, the management was strengthened through periodical inspection and regular meeting. A monthly meeting was hold to report the progress, summarize experiences and arrange work. Thirdly, the advices from each side were fully considered. Experts were invited to discuss on research method, and project progress was reported to the consultative group of experts and national departments in time. Combined with works of relevant departments, the research point and research direction were further defined, and research contents was enriched. Research group have surveyed 8 domestic eco-demonstration regions, such as Tianjin Sino-Singapore eco-city, Shanghai Hongqiao central business eco-city, Wuxi Taihu New Town and Kunming Chenggong New City etc. According to investigation, the developing situation and trend of the domestic eco-city have been known clearly. Also their progress, organization and management structure, existing problems have been known. An intensive study and comparison on each indicator system (including their structure, assignment and implementation) has been made. The group has organized three seminars and invited the officials and experts to discuss the GDISGED. They included the leaders from the U.S. Energy Foundation, Department of S&T and Energy Saving on Buildings of MOHURD, the related governors from Tianjin Sino-Singapore Eco-City, Wuxi Taihu New Town, Changsha Meixi lake Eco-City, Qingdao Sino-German Eco-City, Guangzhou Eco-City, and experts from China Academy of Building Research, Shanghai Academy of Building Research and related research institutes. At the same time, the group discussed GDISGED three times with Shenzhen Academy of Building Research, which completed Technical Guidelines for Drafting on Green Eco-city (District) Planning (TGDGEDP).The group solicited public opinion on GDISGED from Department of Housing and Urban-rural development, Urban Construction Department, Standard Quota Department and related departments. The guide also had tested in 8 eco-cities including Tianjin Sino-Singapore Eco-City, Wuxi Tai lake New Town, Changsha Meixi lake Eco-City, Qingdao Sino-German Eco-city, Guangzhou Eco-city .
Basic conclusions of investigations and analysis can be decuced as follows:
(1) Many cities are constructing demonstrations of eco-city and are exploring new developing models of urbanization. However, their development goals, highlights, ideas, technical means and support policies are quite different. And, the connotations of eco-cities are diverse. Therefore, the government should set relevant policies to regulate and guide the development of eco-city.
(2) In the process of constructing eco-city, indicator system is attached importance and it had been introduced or prepared. However, most indicator systems are miscellaneous. And they cannot be implemented because of the lack of effective means and measures. Most indicators exist in name only. Relevant supporting policies should be compiled as soon as possible to ensure the implementation of indicator system.
(3) The connotation of eco-city is very extensive, and its management is also complicated, which involve many government departments including development and reform, urban and rural planning, construction, environmental protection, land and natural resources, transportation, water conservancy, landscape, environmental protection, finance and related developments. However, management system is adverse, the sense of branch protection is too strong, and the relevant departments are not coordinated. These factors lead to low efficiency of the eco-city. Therefore, relevant supporting policies should be compiled. Innovative institutional systems and new construction management models should be explored.
Policy achievements and reports to sumbit included:
(1) Development status and trend analysis report of eco-city at home and abroad. The main contents are: introduction of the development history and typical cases of eco-city at home and abroad, summarization of the development status and trend of eco-city.
(2) Indicator report of the green building and low carbon ecological city / area at home and abroad. The main contents are: Analysis of relevant foreign indicator systems (Europe green city, LEED ND in the United States, CASBEE for an Urban Area in Japan, BREEAM Communities etc.), comparative study of relevant indicators of different cities, departments and typical low-carbon ecological demonstration zones.
(3) Construction and implementation of Green Eco-district Indicator System. The main contents are: method of constructing the indicator system, guideline of the indicator system, indicator analysis and execution.
(4) Study of relevant development policies of Green Eco-district. The main contents are: the relevant policies for green eco-city in China, implementation plans and construction management approaches of green eco-city in China.
Political challenges and other barriers to new policy options can be summed:
(1) The adaptability of indicators: Indicator system was only tested in 8 eco-cities demonstration areas like Tianjin Sino-Singapore eco-city etc., the indicator election and weight coefficients should be further nationally tested in a wide range.
(2) From the main stakeholders: Green eco-city involves the stakeholders of central and local governments, enterprises and residents. The implementation of the indicators require the active participation and cooperation of all the involved.
(3) From Execution and management: The planning, construction, management of green eco-city involves of the development and reform department, urban and rural planning department, construction department, environmental protection department, land resources department, transportation department, finance department and other government departments of all levels, the duties of each department would be cleared.
Policy recommendation details can be advsised:
(1) In order to strengthen specification and supervision of eco-city (district) construction, the central government should issue GDISGED as soon as possible as well as relevant supporting documents, such as TGDGEDP, Management Measures on Green Eco-city (District) Construction, etc. Meanwhile, the central government should formulate the roadmap of eco-district as soon as possible, development goals and strategies, establish policies and systems of eco-district on planning, encouragement, operation, supervision, etc. Besides, it is necessary to increase incentives intensity and improve the standard specification.
(2) Related departments of provincial government should strengthen the construction of supporting capacity and formulate provincial plans for the development of low-carbon eco-city (district). At the same time, according to circumstances, the government should issue local regulations or guidance, drawing up indicator system suiting for various regions, establishing local fiscal and taxation incenting policy, strengthening supervision on the whole process of eco-city (district) involving different stage, such as planning, design, construction and acceptance.
The further researches will focus on the following subjects:
(1) Revising the GDISGED timely according to the development of eco-city and the feedback from different regions and issuing the corresponding standard and specification eventually.
(2) Cooperating with MOHURD to draft relevant supporting policies, like management measures on demonstration area construction.
(3) Strengthening the implementation of indicators: the indicator will be expatiated to understand the connotation of each index deeply, determine the core essential index, understand clearly controlling steps, control measures and corresponding functions in the process of implementation of each indicator.